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The autoclaves of Tuttle-type (Cold Seal Pressure Vessel) are externally heated by a tube furnace and are pressurized with argon. Maximum temperatures are at 850°C at the maximum pressure of 500 MPa which can be applied in this system. Oxygen fugacity in the interior of water-filled capsules is about two orders of magnitude above the Ni/NiO buffer. Two vertically oriented autoclaves are equipped with a magnetic system allowing rapid heat and rapid quench of samples. With a three-zone furnace temperature gradients can be imposed to the autoclave.


The Ar-CSPV’s can be used for experiments at high pressure and temperature under oxidizing conditions, e.g., to simulate hydrothermal and magmatic processes in the Earth’s crust and in the upper mantle. Hydrothermal synthesis of minerals may be possible as well.


Tuttle, O. F. (1949):  Two Pressure Vessels for Silicate-Water Studies. Geological Society of American Bulletin 60, pp. 1727-1729

Ulmer, G. C., Barnes, H. L. (1987): Hydrothermal experimental techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons